- Plural of helmet
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn on the head to protect it from injuries. The oldest use of helmets was by Ancient Greek soldiers, who wore thick leather or bronze helmets to protect the head from sword blows and arrows. In the 2000s, soldiers still wear helmets, now often made from Kevlar rather than metal, to protect the head from bullets and shell fragments.
In civilian life, helmets are used for recreational activities and sports (e.g., American football, ice hockey, cricket, and rock climbing); dangerous work activities (e.g., construction, mining, police riot duty); and transportation (e.g., Motorcycle helmets and bicycle helmets). Since the 1990s, most helmets are made from resin or plastic, which may be reinforced with fibers such as aramids.
Military originsHelmets were among the oldest forms of combat protection, and are known to have been worn by ancient Greeks, Romans, throughout the Middle Ages, and up to the end of the 1600s by many combatants. At that time, they were purely military equipment, protecting the head from cutting blows with swords, flying arrows, and low-velocity musketry. Some helmets, in order to protect the neck as well, have a sort of extension made of leather strips called pteruges, particularly common in the Middle East.
They were initially constructed from leather, and then bronze and iron during the Bronze and Iron Ages, but soon came to be made entirely from forged steel in many societies after about 950A.D. Military use of helmets declined after 1670, and rifled firearms ended their use by foot soldiers after 1700. By the 18th century, cavalry units often wore steel body cuirasses, and frequently metal skull protectors under their hats, called "secrets".
The Napoleonic era saw ornate cavalry helmets reintroduced for cuirassiers and dragoons in some armies; they continued to be used by French forces during World War I as late as 1915, when they were replaced by the new French Adrian helmet. It was soon followed by the adoption of similar steel helmets by the other warring nations.
The Prussian spiked helmet, or Pickelhaube, offered almost no protection from the increased use of heavy artillery during World War I, and in 1916 was replaced by the German steel helmet, or Stahlhelm, and afterwards it was worn merely for tradition.World War I and its increased use of heavy artillery had renewed the need for steel helmets, which were quickly introduced by all the combatant nations for their foot soldiers. In the 20th century, such helmets offered protection for the head from shrapnel and spent, or glancing, bullets.
Today's militaries often use high-quality helmets made of ballistic materials such as Kevlar, which have excellent bullet and fragmentation stopping power. Some helmets also have good non-ballistic protective qualities, to protect the wearer from non-ballistic injuries, such as concussive shockwaves from explosions, motor vehicle accidents, or falls. Military helmets can be worn with radio earmuffs, and other equipment such as night vision goggles, can be added. Military helmets are often worn with a removable cotton-polyester helmet cover, which allows the user to change the pattern of the camouflage (e.g., from dark green forest camouflage to tan-coloured desert camouflage).
Despite various designs and requirements, all helmets attempt to protect the user's head through a mechanical energy-absorption process. Therefore, their structure and protective capacity are altered in high-energy impacts. Beside their energy-absorption capability, their volume and weight are also important issues, since higher volume and weight increase the injury risk for the user's head and neck. Anatomical helmets adapted to the inner head structure were invented by neurosurgeons at the end of the 20th century.
Helmets used for different purposes have different designs. For example, a bicycle helmet would chiefly need to protect against blunt impact forces from the wearer's head striking the road or a car hood. A helmet designed for rock climbing, however, would need to protect against objects (e.g. small rocks and climbing equipment) such as an ice axe falling from above. Practical concerns also dictate helmet design: a bicycling helmet would preferably be aerodynamic in shape and probably well ventilated, while a rock climbing helmet would be lightweight and with a minimum of bulk so that it would not interfere with climbing.
Some helmets have other protective elements attached to them, such as face visors, goggles, and ear plugs are other forms of protective headgear. Football, hockey and lacrosse helmets usually have an integrated face protector made from metal. Baseball batting helmets have an expanded protection over the ear, which protects the jaw from injury. Motorcycle helmets often have flip-down face screens for rain and wind protection, and they may also have projecting visors to protect the eyes from glare. Hard hats for construction workers are worn mainly to protect the wearer from falling objects such as tools. Helmets for riot police often have flip-down clear visors and thick padding to protect the back of the neck. Modern firefighter's helmets protect the face and back of the head against impact, fires and and electricity, and they include masks, communication systems and other accessories. Welding helmets protect the eyes , face and neck from flash burn, ultraviolet light, sparks and heat. They have a small window, called a lens shade, through which the welder looks at the weld.
In rare cases, people with some medical conditions must wear a helmet to protect the brain, due to a gap in the braincase, e.g. because of cleidocranial dysostosis or in separated craniopagus twins.
Types of helmet
MilitarySee Combat helmet for a list of helmets worn in (ancient and modern) battle combat
(cricket) - protective headgear worn by batsmen in a game of
- A helmet is also worn by a wicket keeper and some fielders close to the batsman.
- Equestrian helmet - protective headgear worn by horse riders
- Bicycle helmet - protective helmet for bicycle riders
helmet - protective headgear worn by batters in a game of
baseball or softball
- catchers full face helmet
helmet - for American football and Canadian football
- Eyeshield - a type of visor for a football helmet
- goalie helmet
- Lacrosse helmet
- Motorcycle helmet or Crash helmet - protective helmet for motorcycle riders
- Pith helmet (a.k.a. sun helmet)
- Ski helmet - protective helmet for skiers
- Association football headgear - protective headgear worn by some association football (soccer) players
- A helmet is also worn in bobsledding
Helmets for work
Protective and Emergency services
- Custodian helmet - British police headgear
- Riotsquad helmet
- SWAT team helmet - mostly PAGST type
- F1 helmet - modern firefighter helmet
- Leatherhead (helmet)/Traditional leather fire helmets - worn by firefighters in North America
- Modern structural fire helmets - fire head gear in North America and other parts of the world
- Merryweather helmets - Victorian-era fire helmet in Britain and Hong Kong
HeraldryAs the coat of arms was originally designed to distinguish combatants on the battlefield or in a tournament, even while covered in armour, it is not surprising that heraldic elements were often also used for the decoration of knightly helmets, while it was also possible to use different elements than on the shield, but equally standardized.
Furthermore, it became common to use a helmet (and/or some other headgear, e.g. a crown or coronet) as part of the coat of arms, above the shield, a practice maintained long after its use in reality was ended by military technology and the demise of jousting. In some systems, the rank of the bearer was reflected in the model of the emblematic helmet, e.g. the metal and the number of bars in the visor, as in France. Either way, the rank can be reflected by a coronet or wreath placed on the helmet (often instead of directly above the shield).
The heraldic convention in the United Kingdom is as follows:
- Sovereign: a barred helm of gold, placed affronté
- Peers generally: barred helms of silver decorated with gold, placed sideways and showing five bars
- Baronet's or Knight's helmet:
- Esquire's and Gentleman's helmet: closed helm or visored helm with visor down, Steel, placed sideways
- commonscat-inline Helmets
helmets in Catalan: Casc
helmets in Danish: Hjelm (hovedbeklædning)
helmets in German: Helm
helmets in Estonian: Kiiver
helmets in Spanish: Casco
helmets in Esperanto: Kasko
helmets in French: Casque
helmets in Ido: Kasko
helmets in Indonesian: Helm
helmets in Italian: Casco
helmets in Hebrew: קסדה
helmets in Dutch: Helm (hoofddeksel)
helmets in Japanese: ヘルメット
helmets in Norwegian: Hjelm
helmets in Polish: Kask (nakrycie głowy)
helmets in Portuguese: Capacete
helmets in Quechua: Amachana chuku
helmets in Russian: Шлем (доспехи)
helmets in Simple English: Helmet
helmets in Finnish: Kypärä
helmets in Swedish: Hjälm
helmets in Vietnamese: Mũ bảo hiểm
helmets in Chinese: 頭盔